Salivary glands ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in Sjögren syndrome: A prospective pilot investigation

Alaa Bukhari, Arwa Farag, Athena Papas, Rumpa Ganguly, Hugo Campos, Aruna Ramesh

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


Objective: The aims of this pilot investigation were to calculate the levels of sensitivity and specificity of salivary glands ultrasonography (SGUS) in diagnosing Sjögren syndrome (SS) and to assess the ultrasonographic findings of parotid and submandibular glands. Study Design: Patients diagnosed with SS or dry mouth and healthy controls were enrolled. Bilateral parotid and submandibular glands were assessed for (1) parenchymal inhomogeneity (PIH), (2) median size of the glands, (3) visibility of glandular posterior borders, and (4) size of sialolith, if present. Results: This study included 34 female patients, of whom 12 had SS (35.3%), 12 had dry mouth (35.3%), and 10 were healthy controls (29.4%). Patients with SS showed higher PIH scores in all glands with the median differences being statistically higher in the right and left parotids and left submandibular glands (P < .001, P = .012, and P < .001, respectively). SGUS, with a PIH cutoff ≥2, showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 81.6% for detecting SS. The majority of SS had invisible glandular posterior borders (P < .001). Median size of the glands and size of the sialolith did not show any statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions: SGUS is a noninvasive imaging modality with good sensitivity and specificity that might be valuable as a diagnostic aid for SS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)172-181
Number of pages10
JournalOral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2021


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