Genotoxicity of yellow shammah (smokeless tobacco) in murine bone marrow cells in vivo

Saeed Alshahrani, Pankaj Tripathi, Hassan A. Alhazmi, Syed Mamoon Hussain, Abdul Hakeem Siddiqui, Waquar Ahsan, Mohammad Al Bratty

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1 Scopus citations


Shammah is a traditional form of smokeless tobacco (ST) that is manufactured and used locally by people of Middle East with highest usage in Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Sudan. In Saudi Arabia, shammah comes in three variants: white, brown and yellow. In the present study, we investigated the genotoxicity of yellow shammah (YS) on bone marrow (BM) cells in vivo using mice. Bone marrow (BM) chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assay were performed and hepatic markers of oxidative stress were determined. Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 6) including negative control (NC) and positive control (PC) groups. The three treated groups included YS-100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, doses freshly prepared in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and administered orally once a day for 2 weeks. PC animals were administered cyclophosphamide (CP) at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight, 24 h before termination. Two weeks continuous treatment of YS induced a dose dependent and significant increase in aberrant metaphases (AM), CA per cell and depression in mitotic activity. In micronucleus assay, YS treatment increased the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) frequency and showed statistically significant reduction in polychromatic erythrocyte/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio at all doses, as compared to NC. YS also markedly inhibited the activities of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and increased malondialdehyde content. CP was used as clastogen (positive control) and yielded the expected positive results. Therefore, it may be concluded that YS has genotoxic and cytotoxic effects for BM cells of mice in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-129
Number of pages6
JournalDrug and Chemical Toxicology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021


  • chromosomal aberration
  • genotoxicity
  • micronucleus
  • oxidative stress
  • Smokeless tobacco
  • yellow shammah


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