Erosion behaviour of API X100 pipeline steel at various impact angles and particle speeds

Paul C. Okonkwo, Rana Abdul Shakoor, Moustafa M. Zagho, Adel Mohamed Amer Mohamed

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Erosion is the gradual removal of material due to solid particle impingement and results in a failure of pipeline materials. In this study, a series of erosion tests were carried out to investigate the influence of particle speed and impact angle on the erosion mechanism of API X100 pipeline steel. A dry erosion machine was used as the test equipment, while the particle speed ranged from 20 to 80 m/s and impact angles of 30° and 90° were used as test parameters. The eroded API X100 steel surface was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The weight loss and erosion rate were also investigated. The results showed that at a 90° impact angle, a ploughing mechanism was occurring on the tested specimens, while material removal through low-angle cutting was the dominant mechanism at lower impact angles. Embedment of alumina particles on the target steel surface, micro-cutting, and low-angle cutting were observed at low impact angles. Therefore, the scratches, cuttings, and severe ploughings observed on some failed oil and gas pipelines could be attributed to the erosion mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number232
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Alumina particles
  • API X100 steel
  • Dry erosion
  • Impact angle
  • Particle velocity


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